According to Aaker, a brand is a unique composition of associations. Which Means that, in developing a clear brand identity, the relationship between brand and consumer should be strengthened. “Brand identity should help Establish a relationship between the brand and the customer by creating a value proposition Involving functional, emotional or self-expressive benefits. Aaker and Joachimsthaler explain three key elements that must form a basis of a consistent brand name or company name:

  1. Brand essence, or essence of the brand
  2. Brand Core or Core Brand Identity
  3. Advanced brand identity or Extended Brand Identity

The brand essence expresses its identity at high concentration; it sums up in few words as possible the real “soul” of the brand. In regard to this context, Aaker and Joachimsthaler confirm that the essence of a brand cannot be equated to the possibly used brand name, tag-line or slogan because brand name / company name / slogan / Claim primarily aims at outsiders and often it is for short-term use only. On the other hand, brand essence permanently represents the central identity of the brand, which is mainly used for communication, motivation and management of internal stakeholder. Therefore, they should be designed to be sustainable and relevant.

The core identity includes the timeless elements of a brand and the answers the customer question, what the mark offers. In general, the core identity is represented by two to four characteristics or dimensions, which summarize the short mark. This aspect of timelessness is crucial in a row, especially in the development of brand names and business names.

The enhanced brand identity consists of four basic elements and defines the brand as:

  1. Product ( Range, characteristics, quality, country of origin),
  2. Organization (characteristics of the organization),
  3. Person (personality, customer relationship / brand)
  4. Symbol (visual imagery and metaphor, history of the brand).


The approach by Meffert and Burmann is based on considerations of Aaker and Keller on brand identity and brand image respectively. Most important theories were brought together, and as a result, brand name or company name agencies were found crucial.

The self-image of the brand identity is referred to as statement concept, the foreign image of the brand identity as acceptance concept.

The core of the self-image is the brand philosophy which describes idea, content and key features of the brand in the form of the brand mission statement. The categories of the brand identity are similar to Aaker’s four dimensions of brand; as a product, person, organization, and symbol. However, the operationalization of various dimensions of the two approaches differs slightly.

The brand identity is constituted in the company actively while the third image is for different target groups later and over a longer period of time. Ultimately, it suggests the image reflected in the external image of the brand. Brand image can thus be interpreted as acceptance of customers regarding their assessment of the mark. In this approach, the brand image by Meffert and Burmann is recognized in accordance with Keller. It consists of uniqueness, strength and profitability of the brand associations, perceived brand characteristics, the nature of the brand benefits and global brand attitude. All these dimensions must also be reflected in the brand name or company name.